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    State of Ohio Standards

    Language Arts Standards


    *Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency

    Students in the primary grades learn to recognize and decode printed words, developing the skills that are the foundations for independent reading. They discover the alphabetic principle (sound-symbol match) and learn to use it in figuring out new words. They build a stock of sight words that helps them to read quickly and accurately with comprehension. By the end of third grade, they demonstrate fluent oral reading, varying their intonation and timing as appropriate for the text.


    1. Identify rhyming words with the same or different spelling patterns.

    2. Use letter-sound knowledge and structural analysis to decode words.

    3. Use knowledge of common word families (e.g., ite or ate) and complex word families (e.g., -ould, ight) to sound out unfamiliar words.
    4. Demonstrate a growing stock of sight words.
    5. Read text using fluid and automatic decoding skills.
    6. Read passages fluently with changes in tone, voice, timing and expression to demonstrate meaningful comprehension.


    *Acquisition of Vocabulary

    Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers.  They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.

    1. Determine the meaning of unknown words using a variety of context clues, including word, sentence and paragraph clues.
    2. Use context clues to determine the meaning of homophones, homonyms and homographs.

    3. Apply the meaning of the terms synonyms and antonyms.

    4. Read accurately high-frequency sight words.

    5. Apply knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to determine their meanings.

    6. Use knowledge of contractions and common abbreviations to identify whole words.

    7. Apply knowledge of prefixes, including un-, re-, pre and suffixes, including -er, -est, -ful and -less to determine meaning of words.

    8. Decode and determine the meaning of words by using knowledge of root words and their various inflections.

    9. Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars.


    *Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and

    Self-Monitoring Strategies

    Students develop and learn to apply strategies, such as predicting and recalling, that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print   (e.g.., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization).  As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evaluate texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding.  They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.

    1. Establish a purpose for reading (e.g., to be informed, to follow directions or to be entertained).
    2. Predict content, events and outcomes by using chapter titles, section headers, illustrations and story topics, and support those predictions with examples from the text.

    3. Compare and contrast information between texts and across subject areas.

    4. Summarize texts, sequencing information accurately and include main ideas and details as appropriate.

    5. Make inferences regarding events and possible outcomes from information in text.

    6. Create and use graphic organizers, such as Venn diagrams and webs, to demonstrate comprehension.

    7. Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media.

    8. Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on or looking back.

    9. Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others).

    10. Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task).


    *Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text

    Students gain information from reading for purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge.  They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotypiny and propaganda in informational text sources.


    1. Use the table of contents, chapter headings, glossary, index, captions and illustrations to locate information and comprehend texts.

    2. List questions about essential elements (e.g., why, who, where, what, when and how) from informational text and identify answers.

    3. Identify and list the important central ideas and supporting details of informational text.

    4. Draw conclusions from information in maps, charts, graphs and diagrams.
    5. Analyze a set of directions for proper sequencing, clarity and completeness.

    *Reading Applications: Literary Text

    Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g.,setting, character and plot), analyzing the author¡¯s use of language (e.g.,

    word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.

    1. Recognize and describe similarities and differences of plot across literary works.
    2. Use concrete details from the text to describe characters and setting.

    3. Retell the plot sequence.

    4. Identify and explain the defining characteristics of literary forms and genres, including fairy tales, folk tales, poetry, fiction and non-fiction.

    5. Explain how an author's choice of words appeals to the senses.
    6. Identify stated and implied themes.
    7. Describe methods authors use to influence readers' feelings and attitudes (e.g., appeal of characters in a picture book; use of figurative language).

    *Writing Process

    Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve their writing conventions.


    1. Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material.

    2. Develop a clear main idea for writing.

    3. Develop a purpose and audience for writing.

    4. Use organizational strategies (e.g., brainstorming, lists, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing.

    5. Organize writing by providing a simple introduction, body and a clear sense of closure.

    6. Use a wide range of simple, compound and complex sentences.

    7. Create paragraphs with topic sentences and supporting sentences that are marked by indentation and are linked by transitional words and phrases.
    8. Use language for writing that is different from oral language, mimicking writing style of books when appropriate.
    9. Use available technology to compose text.
    10. Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a variety of methods (e.g., writer' circle or author's chair).
    11. Add descriptive words and details and delete extraneous information.
    12. Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs to clarify meaning.
    13. Use resources and reference materials, including dictionaries, to select more effective vocabulary.
    14. Proofread writing and edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization) and identify and correct fragments and run-ons.
    15. Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing.
    16. Rewrite and illustrate writing samples for display and for sharing with others.

    *Writing Applications

    Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure in their writing according to audience and purpose.

    1. Write stories that sequence events and include descriptive details and vivid language to develop characters, setting and plot.
    2. Write responses to novels, stories and poems that demonstrate an understanding of the text and support judgments with specific references to the text.

    3. Write formal and informal letters (e.g., thank you notes, letters of request) that include relevant information and date, proper salutation, body, closing and signature.

    4. Write informational reports that include the main ideas and significant details from the text.

    5. Produce informal writings (e.g., messages, journals,

    notes and poems) for various purposes.

    *Writing Conventions

    Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purposes of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a

    range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.

    1. Write legibly in cursive, spacing letters, words and sentences appropriately.
    2. Spell multi-syllabic words correctly.

    3. Spell all familiar high-frequency words, words with short vowels and common endings correctly.

    4. Spell contractions, compounds and homonyms (e.g., hair and hare) correctly.

    5. Use correct spelling of words with common suffixes such as -ion, -ment and -ly.
    6. Follow common spelling generalizations (e.g., consonant doubling, dropping e and changing y to i).
    7. Use resources to check spelling (e.g., a dictionary, spell check).
    8. Use end punctuation marks correctly.
    9. Use quotation marks around dialogue, commas in a series and apostrophes in contractions and possessives.
    10. Use correct capitalization.
    11. Use nouns, verbs and adjectives correctly.
    12. Use subjects and verbs that are in agreement.
    13. Use irregular plural nouns.
    14. Use nouns and pronouns that are in agreement.
    15. Use past, present and future verb tenses.
    16. Use possessive nouns and pronouns.
    17. Use conjunctions.


    Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.

    1. Choose a topic for research from a list of questions, assigned topic or personal area of interest.
    2. Utilize appropriate searching techniques to gather information from a variety of locations (e.g., classroom, school library, public library or community resources).

    3. Acquire information from multiple sources (e.g., books magazines, videotapes, CD-ROMs, Web sites) and collect data (e.g., interviews, experiments, observations or surveys) about the topic.

    4. Identify important information found in the sources and summarize the important findings.

    5. Sort relevant information into categories about the topic.

    6. Understand the importance of citing sources.

    7. Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information gathered.



    *Communication: Oral and Visual

    Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences.  Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to
    clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
    1. Ask questions for clarification and explanation, and respond to others¡¯ ideas.
    2. Identify the main idea, supporting details and purpose of oral presentations and visual media.
    3. Identify the difference between facts and opinions in presentations and visual media.
    4. Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language.
    5. Select language appropriate to purpose and audience.
    6. Use clear diction and tone, and adjust volume and tempo to stress important ideas.
    7. Adjust speaking content according to the needs of the audience.
    8.  a.Deliver informational presentations that: a. present events or ideas in logical sequence and maintain a clear focus;
         b. demonstrate an understanding of the topic;
         c. include relevant facts and details from multiple sources to develop topic;
         d. organize information, including a clear introduction, body, and conclusion
         e. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology; and
         f. identify sources.
    9. Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details.



    Math Standards

    *Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard

    Students demonstrate number sense, including an understanding of number systems and operations and how they relate to one another. Students compute fluently and make reasonable estimates using paper and pencil, technology-supported and mental methods.


    1. Identify and generate equivalent forms of whole numbers; e.g., 36, 30 + 6, 9 x 4, 46 - 10, number of inches in a yard.

    2. Use place value concepts to represent whole numbers and decimals using numerals, words, expanded notation and physical models. For example:

         a. Recognize 100 means 10 tens as well as a single entity (1 hundred) through physical models and trading games.

         b. Describe the multiplicative nature of the number system; e.g., the structure of 3205 as

    3 x 1000 plus 2 x 100 plus 5 x 1.

         c. Model the size of 1000 in multiple ways; e.g., packaging 1000 objects into 10 boxes of 100, modeling a meter with centimeter and decimeter strips, or gathering 1000 pop-can tabs.  

         d. Explain the concept of tenths and hundredths using physical models, such as metric pieces, base ten blocks, decimal squares or money.
    3. Use mathematical language and symbols to compare and order; e.g., less than, greater than, at most, at least, <, >,=, .
    4. Count money and make change using coins and paper bills to ten dollars.
    5. Represent fractions and mixed numbers using words, numerals and physical models.
    6. Compare and order commonly used fractions and mixed numbers using number lines, models (such as fraction circles or bars), points of reference (such as more or less than 12), and equivalent forms using physical or visual models.
    7. Recognize and use decimal and fraction concepts and notations as related ways of representing parts of a whole or a set; e.g., 3 of 10 marbles are red can also be described as 3/10 and 3 tenths are red.
    8. Model, represent and explain multiplication; e.g., repeated addition, skip counting, rectangular arrays and area model. For example:
         a. Use conventional mathematical symbols to write equations for word problems involving multiplication.
         b. Understand that, unlike addition and subtraction, the factors in multiplication and division may have different units; e.g., 3 boxes of 5 cookies each.
    9. Model, represent and explain division; e.g., sharing equally, repeated subtraction, rectangular arrays and area model. For example:
         a. Translate contextual situations involving division into conventional mathematical symbols.
         b. Explain how a remainder may impact an answer in a real-world situation; e.g., 14 cookies being shared by 4 children
    10. Explain and use relationships between operations, such as:
         a. relate addition and subtraction as inverse operations;
         b. relate multiplication and division as inverse operations;
         c. relate addition to multiplication (repeated addition);
         d. relate subtraction to division (repeated subtraction).
    11. Model and use the commutative and associative properties for addition and multiplication.
    12. Add and subtract whole numbers with and without regrouping.
    13. Demonstrate fluency in multiplication facts through 10 and corresponding division facts.
    14. Multiply and divide 2- and 3-digit numbers by a single-digit number, without remainders for division.
    15. Evaluate the reasonableness of computations based upon operations and the numbers involved; e.g., considering relative size, place value and estimates.


    *Measurement Standard

    Students estimate and measure to a required degree of accuracy and precision by selecting and using appropriate units, tools and technologies.

    1. Identify and select appropriate units for measuring:
         a. length -miles, kilometers and other units of measure as appropriate
         b.  volulme(capacity) ¨C gallons;
         c. weight - ounces, pounds, grams, or kilograms;
         d. temperature ¨C degrees (Fahrenheit or Celsius).
    2. Establish personal or common referents to include additional units; e.g., a gallon container of milk; a postage stamp is about a square inch.
    3. Tell time to the nearest minute and find elapsed time using a calendar or a clock.
    4. Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales.
    5. Estimate and measure length, weight and volume (capacity), using metric and U.S. customary units,accurate to the nearest 1/2 or 1/4 unit as appropriate.
    6. Use appropriate measurement tools and techniques to construct a figure or approximate an amount of specified length, weight or volume (capacity); e.g., construct a rectangle with length 2 1/2
    inches and width 3 inches, fill a measuring cup to the 3/4 cup mark.


    *Geometry and Spatial Sense Standard

    Students identify, classify, compare and analyze characteristics, properties and relationships of one-, two-, and three-dimensional geometric figures and objects. Students use spatial reasoning, properties of geometric objects and transformations to analyze mathematical situations and solve problems.

    1. Analyze and describe properties of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects using terms such as vertex, edge, angle, side and face.
    2. Identify and describe the relative size of angles with respect to right angles as follows:

         a. Use physical models, like straws, to make different sized angles by opening and closing the sides, not by changing the side lengths.

         b. Identify, classify and draw right, acute, obtuse and straight angles.

    3. Find and name locations on a labeled grid or coordinate system; e.g., a map or graph.

    4. Draw lines of symmetry to verify symmetrical two-dimensional shapes.

    5. Build a three-dimensional model of an object composed of cubes; e.g., construct a model based on an illustration or actual object.


    *Patterns, Functions and Algebra Standard

    Students use patterns, relations and functions to model, represent and analyze problem situations that involve variable quantities. Students analyze, model and solve problems using various representations such as tables, graphs, and equations.

    1.  Extend multiplicative and growing patterns, and describe the pattern or rule in words.
    2. Analyze and replicate arithmetic sequences with and without a calculator.
    3 Use patterns to make predictions, identify relationships, and solve problems.
    4. Model problem situations using objects, pictures, tables, numbers, letters and other symbols.

    5. Write, solve and explain simple mathematical statements, such as 7 + > 8 or  ?+ 8 = 10.

    6. Express mathematical relationships as equations and inequalities.

    7. Create tables to record, organize and analyze data to discover patterns and rules.
    8. Identify and describe quantitative changes, especially those involving addition and subtraction; e.g., the height of water in a glass becoming 1 centimeter lower each week due to


    *Data Analysis and Probability Standard

    Students pose questions and collect, organize, represent, interpret and analyze data to answer those questions. Students develop and evaluate inferences, predictions and arguments that are based on data.

    1. Collect and organize data from an experiment, such as recording and classifying observations or measurements, in response to a question posed.
    2. Draw and interpret picture graphs in which a symbol or picture represents more than one object.

    3. Read, interpret and construct bar graphs with intervals greater than one.

    4. Support a conclusion or prediction orally and in writing, using information in a table or graph.

    5. Match a set of data with a graphical representation of the data.

    6. Translate information freely among charts, tables, line plots, picture graphs and bar graphs; e.g., create a bar graph from the information in a chart.

    7. Analyze and interpret information represented on a timeline.

    8. Identify the mode of a data set and describe the information it gives about a data set.

    9. Conduct a simple experiment or simulation of a simple event, record the results in a chart, table or graph, and use the results to draw conclusions about the likelihood of possible outcomes.

    10. Use physical models, pictures, diagrams and lists to solve problems involving possible arrangements or combinations of two to four objects.




Last Modified on August 8, 2008